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A Brief Guide to Infrared Photography

by Al Olson

© 2001  a.c.olson -- Hay Barn
© 2001 a.c.olson -- Hay Barn. Film is Kodak HIE High Speed Infrared, using a Nikon F2 with a Vivitar Series I 35-85mm varifocal lens. A Wratten A (red) filter was used to limit the exposure to the red and infrared portions of the spectrum. Note that all vegetation (grass and trees) exhibits the Wood Effect.

These notes provide a summary of useful information to be used as a useful starting point for infrared photography. For more serious pursuit it is suggested that the photographer consult the recommended reading included in these notes.

References are provided both for printed publications and for internet sites. Internet paths are supplied to direct the reader to technical data sheets for each of the films as well as for exploring other information and examples of infrared photography.

The Light Spectrum

In the simplest terms, the wavelengths of the visible spectrum run approximately from 380 nm to 730 nm. [The term nm stands for nanometers and represents one billionth of a meter. You will also see wave-lengths specified in millimicrons, mµ, which is an older name for nm, and Ångstroms, Å, which are one tenth the length of a nanometer, or one ten-billionth of a meter.]

The sensitivity curve of the human eye looks like an arch with the peak at 550 nm and dropping off to zero at 380 and 730 nm. The wave-lengths below 380 nm belong to the ultraviolet spectrum and the wavelengths above 730 are contained in the infrared spectrum. The thermal portion of the infrared spectrum begins around 1200 nm and is known as far infrared. It is beyond the sensitivity of any commercially available film. Note emphatically, there is no commercially available film that will photograph heat!

When talking about the visible spectrum it is useful to simplify by dividing it roughly into three regions, the blue region spans 400-500 nm, the green region covers 500-600 nm, and the red region 600-700 nm. The infrared region includes wave lengths beyond 730 nm. The blue region actually includes a range of colors such as violet, blue, and blue-green; the green spectrum includes the various greens and yellows; and the red spectrum contains the oranges and reds. This is useful to know when we talk about film sensitivity and filtration because it affects the results in ways we might not otherwise anticipate.

Different types of light sources make a big difference in the sensitivity of the films. Sunlight and incandescent lights are rich in infrared. Electronic flash is a little weaker in infrared, but can be used to produce usable photographs even when filtered. Discontinuous light sources, that is,light sources that produce high output only at certain wavelengths and are weak or nonexistent at other wavelengths of the visible spectrum, are not suitable for infrared photography. Fluorescent lights and mercury lamps are discontinuous light sources that produce no illumination in the infrared spectrum.

Films

Kodak High Speed Infrared, HIE, is sensitive all the way to 950 nm. This film has the greatest range into the infrared region of any of the infrared films. HIE is also very sensitive in the ultraviolet region which means that it will overexpose clouds, sky, and haze if filtration is not used. This film has lower sensitivity in the green region, so anything that is green and without chlorophyll will photograph darker than normal. When red, orange or yellow filters are used, most of the blue and green light will be filtered out, leaving these colors very dark on the monochrome image. This film is available only in 135 (at approximately $11 - 16 per roll). Kodak discontinued the 4x5 sheet film size at the end of 2000, although they still produce specialty films for aerial photography (in 70mm and 9.5” wide rolls in 100 ‘ lengths).

Konica-Minolta Infrared 750 is sensitive all the way to 820 nm, but its peak sensitivity is at 750 nm. While it is not as fast as Kodak films, it does have an anti-halation backing and it does produce inter-esting infrared effects, especially with red, dark red and red opaque filters. This film is entirely insensi-tive to the green and half the red region of the spectrum. It is only sensitive to the blue region and the red/infrared region from 640 to 820 nm. The lack of sensitivity in the green region may be a carryover from military applications where infrared films were used in aerial reconnaissance to detect camouflaged targets. Green foliage looks white under infrared, but camouflage will be dark if it is green and does not produce chlorophyll. This also may be the reason that Kodak films are weaker in the green region.

This film is applicable to normal infrared photography and to scientific and specialized applications using infrared radiation. With its fine grain the film's photographic sensitivity without filtration enables usage in normal pictorial photography with faithful reproduction of grays.

In infrared photography it is effective in creating spectacular scenes and special effects: portraying vegetation and clouds as white and blue sky and water as coal black. Warm skin tones and lips will appear white. Usage for scientific applications includes: document identification; medical imaging; biological photography; archeological surveying; mapping; and aerial photography.

I have obtained nice results with this film also. Konica-Minolta infrared film is available in 135 and 120 (both at approximately $6 per roll).

Ilford SFX 200 is not truly an infrared film. Its sensitivity reaches out to 740 nm which is not too distant from the rest of the visible spectrum. Its sensitivity across the visible spectrum is better behaved than the others. I have not been able to get any results with this film that I felt were as dramatic and striking as the Kodak and Konica films. This film is available in 135 (at approximately $7 per roll) and 120 (at $5 per roll).

Agfapan APX 200S is sensitive from 400 to 775nm, better than Ilford’s SFX. This film is more sensitive than Kodak in the region from 675 to 750 and it has good film speed. However, it is also very sensitive to the ultraviolet region, which means it will be very susceptible to haze unless filtration is used. The recommended ISO is 200 although it can be pushed to an exposure index of 800. [Although Agfa provides an abbreviated Technical Data Sheet on their website, a search of the photo dealers, B&H and Adorama, does not show this in stock. It will most likely need to be special ordered.]

© 2003  a.c.olson -- Great Falls of the Potomac
© 2003 a.c.olson -- Great Falls of the Potomac. -- photographed with a Bronica SQA and 80mm Zenzanon lens. Image was made with a Wratten A (#25) red filter. Film was developed in HC-110, dilution B for 10 minutes. Note that deciduous vegetation does not exhibit the Wood Effect, but remains a medium to dark gray. The sky is a lighter gray much as it would be with a panchromatic film.

© 2007  a.c.olson -- Pagosa Peak in the Clouds
© 2007 a.c.olson -- Pagosa Peak in the Clouds. -- photographed on Macophot Infrared 820c using a Bronica SQA camera and 80mm Zenzanon lens. Image was made with a Cokin 007 opaque infrared filter. Film was developed in D-76 for 10 1/2 minutes. Note that the grass and deciduous vegetation appears white to light gray and exhibits the Wood Effect. The infrared effect darkens the sky to nearly black.
Macophot Infrared 820c is a recent film manufactured in Germany and has a reasonably fine grain for an infrared film. Its peak sensitivity is at 820 nm and it drops off sharply from there. A usable exposure index is 100 EI with appropriate corrections for filtration. The manufacturer does not provide much information as to technical specifications nor developing instructions. The film base and emulsion are thicker than normal, which leads to longer developing times. It has a blue anti-halation backing that must be washed off before it is placed in the developer.

I, personally, have shot two rolls of 120. The first was developed according to Maco’s instructions. The result was a very thin negative with no details in the shadows. The second roll was push-processed an extra stop. This provided more acceptable negative densities. [This is corroborated by some of the other user comments on the internet.] This film is available in 135 (at approximately $9 per roll), 120 (at $6 per roll), and 25 sheet boxes of 4x5 (at $58 per box).

*** When it was first introduced, 820 was getting great reviews and the results looked wonderful, but nothing was said about it being so slow in the IR. In fact the articles talked about its EI of 100. The spectral sensitivity chart that they displayed on their web site showed a flat curve until the sharp drop-off at 820nm.

My experience with MACO 820, on the other hand, indicates an IE of around 3 with an R72 filter. There is such a large differential between visible sensitivity and IR sensitivity that if you use a filter that allows visible light, such as a Wratten A, you must use a higher EI, around 12 to 20, rather than an EI of 3 to 6 with an R72 filter. But with the higher exposure to accommodate the visible light, there is no Wood effect because the film is relatively insensitive to IR.

This does not jibe with the spectral sensitivity chart they initially showed on their web site. This makes me wonder if originally there was not a different, more IR sensitive coating. If so, what happened to it? ***

For or five years ago I tried MACO 820 roll film with a Wratten A and through the filter metering at EI 100. I had it processed by my lab in HC-110, dil B, according to MACO specs for 5 minutes. The image was so thin it was nearly invisible. The next roll my lab doubled the development time and the image was normal, in fact it did not appear to have an IR effect at all. I went back to Kodak HIE.

This week I shot another couple of rolls of MACO in the Bronica with a Cokin 007 filter that is supposed to be similar to 89B with a 50% cutoff at 720nm. I metered for EI 3 and EI 6 with my Sekonic. They were developed in D-76, full strength, for 8:30 minutes. (This is in accordance with the instructions printed on the inside of the box.)

The EI 6 frames are so thin that they are nearly clear. The EI 3 frames are also quite thin, but the scanner with the help of Elements pulled out quite a bit of detail. It remains to be seen how they will print.

Note that the Pagosa Peak image has pretty fair tonal range. This was the best image at EI 3. The Summitville image, also at EI 3, loses a lot of shadow detail, although the texture of the snow is preserved.

I think I will try the next roll at an EI of 1.5 and perhaps increase the development time as well.

I have used MACO in the past ... about 4 or 5 years ago. At that time their WEB site showed a sensitivity curve for this film that had approximately the same level of sensitivity in the IR region as in the visible region and with a sharp drop-off at 820nm.

However, using a Wratten A (#25) the results were scarcely different from, say, Tri-X. It also seemed to drop off sharply around 700nm. The Wood effect was not apparent at all!

I discovered later that these sensitivity curves were erroneous and that, in fact, it is necessary to use a stronger IR filter such as an R72 that blocks most of the visible light. But this filter also requires a severe cut in the IE down to the 3-6 range because of the film's extremely low sensitivity in the IR region.

I am not sure what it will mean for the Efke IR to be like the MACO 820??? Don't Rollei and MACO IRs using the same coatings? I would hope to see an IR film that has much higher sensitivity out to 820nm.

But there is a lot of confusing information. Freestyle lists it as sensitive up to 720nm and with an unfiltered ISO of 400. However, if you click on the data sheet, MACO claims sensitivity up to 820nm with an ISO of 400, see: http://www.freestylephoto.biz/pdf/Rollei%20Infrared.pdf They still recommend an R72 filter so there has to be sensitivity (small as it may be) beyond 720nm. Note carefully the spectral sensitivity curve.

To add to the confusion, the MACO IR820c film that I have in my freezer (expiration date 1/2008) claims sensitivity to 820nm, but unfiltered ISO of 100!

Are these different films or are they the same. I think that the results that I have experienced with the MACO IR820c film tell me that its spectral sensitivity is closer to that given for the Rollei IR than the sensitivity curve shown in my prior post.

My guess is this is all the same film, but you are on your own as far as exposure. If you use it with an R72 filter, the EI of 3 is probably most correct.

Kodak Ektachrome Professional Infrared, EIR, is a “false-color” transparency film. This means that the colors that you see are not the colors that you actually get. The film layers are sensitized so that:

  1. strong yellow filtration causes foliage to appear reddish-magenta, sky a blue-purple, and water a dark blue;
  2. orange filtration causes foliage to become more orange and red, the sky a dark blue and water a dark blue or black;
  3. red filtration causes foliage to appear orange and some red, sky a greenish cyan, and water a dark green or black, and white becomes yellow;
  4. magenta filtration causes foliage to appear orange, sky a brownish purple, water a dark green or black, but whites remain white.

Suggested applications are artistic effects with very unusual false colors, fashion/glamour, medical/scientific research, and forensics. This film may either be processed in AR-5 chemistry for infrared accuracy or E-6 for higher color saturation and contrast

EIR is particularly sensitive to green, red, and infrared radiation out to 900 nm and it is only produced in 135 (at approximately $22 per roll).

Filters

The effect of filters on Kodak EIR transparency film has already been discussed above. This section will deal with the effect of filters on black & white infrared films.

All of the infrared films may be used without filtration. As a rule, the sensitivity to the visible spectrum will mask the results of exposure to the infrared side of the spectrum. Filters are used to darken (cut down the exposure) the colors in the blue and green regions to emphasize (lighten) reds and infrareds. The color of the filter determines how much of the visible spectrum will reach the film. The following table shows the f-stop corrections for each of the films.

Filter Type Color Obscures wavelengths below (nm) Plus-X Kodak HIE Konica-Minolta 750 Ilford SFX
#8 aka Wratten K-2 medium yellow 450 +1 +0 to +1 +1½ +0
#15 aka Wratten O orange 500 +2/3 +1/3 to +1½ +2 +0
#25 aka Wratten A red 600 +3 +2/3 to +2 +2 +1
#29 dark red 680 +4 1/3 +2/3 to +2 +2 +1
#87 opaque infrared 800 N/A +1 2/3 to +3 +5 +13

Each of the filters listed cuts off the portion of the spectrum with wavelengths less then the specified value. An orange filter allows the greens, yellows, oranges, reds and infrared colors to pass through. It filters out all of the blue region so that any blue object would appear dark or black while the other visible colors and infrared would expose lighter in the finished print. A filter will change the proportion of intensity that a color brings to the print. It is interesting to see how dark red objects will photograph to a very light shade on infrared.

The #25 filter permits part of the visible spectrum to pass, but these limitations coupled with the sensitivity to the infrared spectrum causes some of the most striking infrared photographs to be produced. The #15 is, in my opinion, the second best filter for this type of photography. I have omitted discussing the opaque filters because they transmit such a narrow part of the spectrum that the photographs become less interesting. These filters are best suited for technical applications such as medicine or analysis of materials where a very narrow spectral response is required.

It should be noted that filters shown above are more difficult to use in SLR cameras because they cut down light transmission and darken the image in the viewfinder. They also make the Automatic Focus capabilities non-functional if they cause the viewfinder to be too dark. It may be necessary to remove the filter to set up the shot, focus and compose. Once the image is composed and all the exposure settings are set, then replace the filter and take the picture. It is easier, if using a viewfinder camera, to compose the photo and perform the exposure settings without removing and replacing the filter.

A Word about Digital Infrared

The Finepix IS-1 was developed for use in the law enforcement, medical/dental and science fields and is a follow-on to Fuji's S3 Pro UVIR. Unlike the previous model, the IS-1 is not a digital SLR, but an adapted version of the FinePix S9100 and hence offers features that its predecessor was lacking, like continuous live preview.

The sensors for most digital cameras are sensitive in both the ultraviolet and the infrared regions. Manufacturers place filters over these sensors to eliminate the ultraviolet spectrum. They also place a filter that restricts the infrared, but usually allows some of the spectrum near the visible to be recorded. The photographer can test the digital camera for infrared capability by shooting through a red or infrared filter and the examining the results in monochrome. Some of the later, more expensive models have a switch that will allow photography in infrared.

As a last resort, to have a dedicated infrared camera, some photographers are returning their older digital cameras to manufacturers such as Canon to have the infrared suppression filter removed and to have it replaced with an infrared filter that suppresses more of the visible spectrum. Needless to say, digital cameras are taking excellent infrared photos as well (only in monochrome, there is no false color capability in digital) and the coke website cited under the internet references contains some good examples of digital infrared.

Because digital cameras have an LED viewing screen, the photographer is able to see the infrared image as it is being photographed. The image is displayed with normal brightness, not the reduced brightness of the infrared filtration as viewed through an SLR. This means that one can also use opaque infrared filters such as the #87 or the #89B and still be able to view the image that will be captured digitally.

Subjects That Make Interesting Infrared Photos

When shooting with either Kodak or Konica monochrome infrared film, the best effects are obtained with the red No. 25, Wratten A, filter. Because the infrared effects that we are interested in lie in the portion of the infrared spectrum just outside the visible spectrum, the Konica film has sufficient range to create a similar infrared effect as the Kodak film. The Konica film, however, does have an anti-halation backing that prevents the halation effect that is present in the Kodak film.

With this configuration, vegetation will photograph nearly white with fresh, healthy leaves to a mid-tone gray for coniferous trees and hemlocks. For this reason, infrared was once used for aerial surveys of forests to identify by means of the gray scale the amount of area populated by each species and to discriminate healthy forestation from unhealthy trees.

Each form of plant life gives off a slightly different shade of gray depending upon the amount of chlorophyll in the leaves. New leaf material will photograph lighter than older leaves. Dying leaves will be darker than healthy leaves. A mixture of different plants, grasses, trees, and so on, will make the photograph more interesting. Reddish leaves in the fall, however, will photograph lighter, not because they still have chlorophyll to reflect the infrared, but because of the red filtration from the visible spectrum that makes their reddish tones appear lighter.

It should be noted that if the leaves are in the shade, they will not be radiating as much infrared as they would in direct sunlight. In fact, shaded leaves may appear quite dark, darker than you may anticipate.

When photographing flowers, the photographer should be aware that the use of a red filter will cause red, orange, and yellow flowers to appear as very light tones in the finished image. This is because the red filter transmits these wavelengths while suppressing the blues and greens, making the red side of the spectrum relatively brighter. The usual result is that there will be insufficient contrast separation between the flowers and the leaves to produce adequate punch to the subject. Flowers, such as pansies, that contain markings in other colors may make a more desirable subject.

Wood, especially old wood, makes an interesting image. The infrared emphasizes the texture of the wood in old buildings, bridges, barns, fallen logs, and so on. Likewise for stonework. It is more difficult to judge how old stones will appear because each combination of minerals reflects infrared differently. Old tombstones make an excellent infrared subject.

If there is moss on the old wood or stone, there will be infrared highlights in those locations. Sometimes the moss is so faint that the photographer is unaware there will be an effect until he views the processed images.

Different metals also produce different results with infrared. This is complicated by some of the metals that oxidize or develop a patina. Again, the results are hard to predict, but usually the surprise is a pleasant one. For this reason, infrared is useful for creating unusual views and compositions of statues and monuments.

The red filter will darken the sky and emphasize cloud formations. This is true with the normal monochrome films as well when exposed with a red filter. Water will also appear darker because of the blue reflection from the sky. On an overcast day, the water may appear somewhat lighter.

It is interesting to note the results of photographs taken on a lightly overcast day. If the overcast is sufficiently thin, the red filter will suppress the wavelengths on the blue side of the spectrum, so that light passing through the clouds will expose some of the cloud patterns that were not apparent to the naked eye. These wispy patterns can add drama to the image.

Because of the halation effect of the Kodak infrared films, this film has also become popular for wedding portraiture. Kodak’s infrared creates an ethereal, dream-like appearance to wedding photographs. However, infrared is not a good media for close-ups and head shots. Because of the red filtration, healthy skin looks white and pasty. Lips and healthy cheeks appear white.

Infrared also penetrates slightly below the surface of the skin. Infrared will bring out the beard on clean-shaven men and blue veins near the skin surface will appear dark. It is for these reasons that infrared films are better used for medical studies and are not the best media for portraiture.

Exposure

It is difficult for the manufacturers to determine an ISO index for infrared films because of the varying sensitivity to the different light sources. Determining correct exposure is complicated by the fact that most modern light meters measure only the visible spectrum. The older selenium cells used in the early meters were sensitive to the ultraviolet and infrared spectrums as well, but it would be difficult to find one that was calibrated for infrared exposures.

Fortunately, when working with normal daylight and a red #25 filter, measuring the visible light through the filter gives a pretty good approximation as to the infrared exposure. If the camera has through the lens metering, simply set the exposure index, IE, to the recommended setting and meter the visible spectrum through the filter. In daylight conditions, the infrared is usually proportional to the visible light. If you are not metering through the filter, then apply the appropriate filter correction factors to the IE.

The table below suggests some guidelines for determining exposures. If you are working in conditions where you are in doubt about the intensity of the infrared lighting then bracket your exposures. Infrared films have a contrast range that is shorter than the normal black and white films, so it is very easy to blowout highlights or lose shadow detail. Black and white HIE has about the same contrast range as most color transparency films. Color EIR has only about 4 stops of good contrast range.

Film Approximate IE Comments
Kodak HIE 100 Gives increased grain and lower contrast.
... 200 Medium grain and contrast
... 400 Less grain, more contrast
Konica 750 25 Acceptable
... 50 Normal photographs
... >50 Unacceptable contrast and muddy blacks.
Ilford SFX 200 50-200 Little difference between resulting prints.
Macophot Infrared 820c 100-200 Relatively fine grained film that can be pushed to an IE of 800.
Kodak EIR <100 Twilight and deep shade – produces a coarser grain.
... 200 Overcast or early morning/late afternoon, light shadows
... 400 Midday, bright sunlight – produces a finer grain.

Anti-halation Backing

Kodak is unique in that they are the only film manufacturer that does not produce an anti-halation (halation for the halo effect) backing for their infrared films. Kodak omits this backing only on their infrared films, both color and black and white.

Because Kodak infrared films do not have the anti-halation backing, some of the light passes through the emulsion and when it strikes the surfaces of the ESTAR film base it is reflected back to the emulsion. In this process, the light is scattered so that it produces a cloud or halo effect that is particularly prominent where there is a sharp contrast between two areas. There will be a light fringe along the edge of the darker area. This makes images produced with the Kodak films take on a somewhat ethereal quality. This effect is often utilized by some photographers.

Film Handling

Because Kodak’s infrared film does not have this anti-halation backing, the film base acts as a light pipe and the leader outside the cassette transmits light into the cassette which will fog the film. Even when the leader is wound into the cassette, if a little bit of light should penetrate the felt light trap, it will penetrate all the way through the roll. For this reason, Kodak films should be loaded and unloaded in total darkness and the cassette must be kept in its light-tight container when it is not in the camera.

Now I have, in two instances, gotten away with exposing the cassette to dim indoor light once the film had been wound into the cassette. However, on another occasion when I changed film in open shade on a bright day, the film did become fogged.

The other infrared film brands can be loaded and unloaded normally, but they should all be handled in subdued light.

Focusing

A single glass lens has a different focal length for each color in the spectrum. When projected on film, this causes a slight colored rainbow effect, especially around areas where contrast changes abruptly. This is called chromatic aberration. Lens manufacturers correct this problem for the visible spectrum in their lens designs by using compound lenses made of different glass with different indices of refraction and they design these lenses with different curvatures to compensate for this problem. These lenses are called apochromats. Unfortunately, these lenses are not corrected for infrared and because it is at a longer wavelength it focuses behind the plane of the visible spectrum, that is, behind the film plane when the image in in focus at the film plane.

There two things the photographer can do to correct for this focusing problem. Many lenses have a red focusing mark (for infrared) that is offset from the standard focusing index. The technique is to first focus for visible light and then turn the focusing ring so this focus distance is moved to the red focusing mark.

The second approach is to make your exposures using a smaller aperture to take advantage of the depth of field. This will produce a sharp negative even though the image is not quite in focus. Many of my lenses do not have the infrared mark so I stop the lens down to take advantage of the depth of field. Sometimes I will simply focus my lens slightly closer. This increases the distance from the lens to the focal plane so that the focused infrared image is not projected behind it.

Sources for Infrared Film, Supplies, Processing and Reference Books

There are a number of photo stores (Wolfe, Waxman, Ritz, Penn Camera, etc.) in the bigger cities that carry film and reference books. Be wary about the expiration date on IR films. They degrade much faster than the general purpose films. They should be stored in a freezer until used and then developed immediately. None of the stores local to this area carry books on infrared photography and only one, Southern Lights, keeps a limited stock of two B&W films. Other sources of reference material are Amazon.com.

I have received satisfactory pricing and service from several of the mail order stores that advertise in the photography magazines. When purchasing multiple rolls in the past I have ordered from one of the New York stores, B&H Photo or Adorama, who have always sent me the freshest film available.

Developing and Processing

Both black and white as well as Ektachrome can be developed in the darkroom. I recommend downloading the technical data sheets for these films if you wish to do this yourself. Other information can be obtained from the printed documents as well as from the internet sites.

Commercial processing is more difficult to come by. Most of the labs are geared to standard processing of chromogenic films, using C-41 chemistry, and are not equipped to do any processes that require total darkness. This includes the Kodak labs.

Printed References

I have found several of the following publications very informative. I am listing several others that I have found on the racks of the photo shops and taken the opportunity to browse through. All of the books below are published by Amherst Media. Perhaps the best source for any of these publications is Amazon.com unless you happen to be shopping at a big city photo store or bookstore such as Borders or Barnes & Noble.

Author/Title/Comments

Laurie White
Infrared Photography Handbook, 1995
This is an excellent book, gives a great overview of the light spectrum, sensitivities of films and has some good examples of applications of infrared techniques. My first choice for a technical reference.

Joseph Paduano
The Art of Infrared Photography, 1998
This is not as far-reaching with regard to understanding the light spectrum. Its strengths are the basics of exposure and filtering as well as developing and processing. It also has a chapter on color infrared and a chapter on digital infrared photography. This book has many photo examples, but with no descriptions of the circumstances or techniques under which the images were made.

Laurie White Hayball
Advanced Infrared Photography Handbook, 2001
Does not have the detailed discussion of the light spectrum that was presented in her first book. But it has better discussion of filtration and provides filtration examples of the different films for comparison. Also has some good comparisons of infrared and color taken of the same subjects. Although the title says “advanced” it is probably the better beginner’s book.

Steven H. Begleiter
The Art of Color Infrared Photography, 2002
This book is devoted wholly to color infrared photography. Mr. Begleiter is a nationally known commercial photographer who uses the false color characteristics of infrared for some very jolting advertising images mostly accomplished in the studio environment. While his style is not to my taste, I have modified some filtration techniques for special scenic effects.

Richard Beitzel
Infrared Portrait Photography
I have scanned through this book. Looks like a good reference for someone who understands the basics of infrared and wishes to do portraits.

Patrick Rice, Barbara Rice, & Travis Hill
Infrared Wedding Photography
This is another book that I have reviewed on the rack. Again, looks like a good reference, but not a book for beginners.

Todd Damiano
Infrared Landscape Photography
I have looked through this book on the reference rack. It is a little short on dealing with the basics for beginners, but if your interest is landscape photography it is possible to follow his examples and get good results.

Internet Sources

The following cited sources have been checked by the author on 4/30/04 and are confirmed to be active as of that date.

Useful Information About Infrared

The following internet sites were oriented to infrared photography and contained interesting information and some good ideas:
www.jackspcs.com/dskonica.htm
coke.physics.ucla.edu/laptag/mchs/photo/irphoto01.htm

Data Sheets

Most of the manufacturers do not include much information with their film packaging anymore. If you want more detailed technical information, either buy their publications describing the film characteristics and the processing requirements or go to their internet site to get this information. Internet sites for obtaining technical data and processing instructions are provided below:

KODAK EKTACHROME Professional Infrared EIR Film
www.kodak.com/global/en/professional/products/films/catalog/kodakEktachromeProfessionalInfraredEIRFilm.jhtml
www.kodak.com/global/en/professional/support/techPubs/ti2323/ti2323.jhtml

KODAK High Speed Infrared Film
www.kodak.com/global/en/professional/products/films/bw/catalog/kodakProfessionalHighSpeedInfraredFilm.jhtml
www.kodak.com/global/en/professional/support/techPubs/f13/f13.jhtml

Konica Infrared 750 Black & White Film
www.jackspcs.com/dskonica.htm
*** Data sheet available, but production ceased.***

ILFORD SFX 200
www.ilfordphoto.com/products/product.asp?n=12&t=Consumer+%26+Professional+Films

Agfapan APX 200S
www.agfaphoto.com/products.php?lang=en&id=25&categorie=74
*** Agfa is producing film again including the APX B&W films, but not the APX 200S infrared. ***

MACO, Efke, Rollei 820 Film (I am providing sites of users because there does not seem to be a manufacturer’s site available.)
http://www.overtonphoto.com/tech/macophot.htm
http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~epederso/Photo/IR/Test.html
http://www.pauck.de/marco/photo/infrared/maco/maco.html
www.jackspcs.com/dsmaco.htm
The following sites bring up the same pdf file.
www.mahn.net/TA820ce.pdf
www.digitaltruth.com/store/efke_tech/Ekfe_IR820_tech.pdf
www.retrophotographic.com/PDFs/TA_MACO_IR820c_AURA_UK.pdf

Technical Guides

Tripod Guide
Multiple Exposure Guide
Infrared Guide
Existing-Light Guide

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Al Olson
(970) 731-9801
a.c.olson@CenturyTel.net
© 2002-2005 a.c.olson